Construct Validity and Responsiveness of the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale (C19-YRS) in a Cohort of Italian Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6696;


Post-COVID Syndrome (PCS) is characterized by physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms with a negative impact on daily activities. This study tested the responsiveness and construct validity of the original version of the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale (C19-YRS) in a cohort of Italian hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This longitudinal study involved 79 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with rehabilitation needs, assessed after 12 and 26 weeks post- infection. Functional and patient-reported outcome measures were correlated with 10 items of the C19-YRS to test the construct validity, whereas distribution-based methods were used for the responsiveness over time. After 12 weeks since infection, 88.5% of patients reported fatigue, 83.3% breathlessness, 69.4% anxiety, 55.6% depression, and 44.9% pain. Moreover, 84.6% experienced reduced mobility, 75.7% had difficulties with usual activities, and 47.4% with personal care. Single items for each symptom had significant correlation (rho 0.25–0.60) with well-established scales for these symptoms. At 26 weeks, except for anxiety, all the PCS symptoms were still present but significantly reduced. The C19-YRS had moderate responsiveness for the most represented deficit reported. The C19-YRS was a valuable patient-reported outcome for screening, assessing severity, and monitoring the persistence of symptoms after 12 and 26 weeks from SARS-CoV2 infection in a cohort of Italian hospitalized patients.